As estrogen levels drop at menopause, bones begin to lose minerals and strength; too little dietary calcium and vitamin D will exacerbate the problem. Vitamin D deficiency is especially common after menopause. "As skin ages, it becomes less efficient in making vitamin D from sunlight," explains Dr. Sood. While it's always best to get nutrients from food, popping these two in pill form is fine for most people. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends that all women age 50 and over get 1,200 milligrams of calcium daily (divided into two or more doses) from their diet—and supplements if necessary—and 800 to 1,000 IU (international units) of vitamin D each day.