pro-life/anti-BC...how's it workin?

iVillage Member
Registered: 08-30-2005
pro-life/anti-BC...how's it workin?
137
Tue, 02-24-2009 - 7:05pm

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/cristina-page/pro-life-movement-admits_b_169489.html

Just proof that it isn't a pro-life movement to these people, it's a chance to control women, control behaviour, and promote ignorance.

Gee, who would've thought that by restricting birth control, the abortion rate would go up?

Pages

iVillage Member
Registered: 06-17-2007
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 5:56pm

So who wrote this one? Or are we continuing in the plagiarism spree?

"Sensible people are glad to see that teen abortions are declining dramatically and that the total number of abortions is also declining."

Who would be happy to see them rise?

"The abstinence message is getting through to teens, and sonogram technology is making possible increased awareness of the humanity of those babies in the womb."

Wrong again. I'm afraid that if the abstinence-only education has done anything, it is NOT to prevent teenage pregnancy.

If you'd like to have a discussion about the merits of AOE, I would love to as well. But I'm not going to search my computer for the House Oversight Committee report vehemently criticizing AOE and the exponentially rising number of states that are declining participation in it if you aren't interested.




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iVillage Member
Registered: 04-10-2003
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 5:57pm

<< Most women dont get an abortion in the first nine weeks. >

Of the 1.6 million abortions performed in the U.S. each year, 91 percent are performed during the first trimester (12 or fewer weeks' gestation); 9 percent are performed in the second trimester (24 or fewer weeks' gestation); and only about 100 are performed in the third trimester (more than 24 weeks' gestation), approximately .01 percent of all abortions performed. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,880,00.html

<< A 2006 poll conducted by CBS News finds a majority of Americans oppose virtually all abortions in the United States. Those polled said they want either no abortions to occur or for abortion to be limited to very rare circumstances. >>

Not quite, LOL

http://www.pollingreport.com/abortion.htm

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Neil Newhouse (R). Sept. 6-8, 2008. N=860 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.3.

.

"Which comes closest to your view on abortion: abortion should always be legal; should be legal most of the time; should be made illegal except in cases of rape, incest and to save the mother's life; or abortion should be made illegal without any exceptions?"

.
Always
Legal Legal
Most of
the Time Illegal
With a Few
Exceptions Illegal
Without
Exceptions Unsure
% % % % %

9/6-8/08
25 24 37 10 4

CNN/Opinion Research Corporation Poll. Aug. 29-31, 2008. N=1,031 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"With respect to the abortion issue, would you consider yourself to be pro-choice or pro-life?"

.
Pro-choice Pro-life Unsure About
Terms (vol.) Mixed/Both/
Neither (vol.) Unsure

%

%

%

%

%

8/29-31/08

53

44

2

2

-

5/4-6/07

45

50

2

2

1

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Aug. 19-22, 2008. N=1,108 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3. Fieldwork by TNS. RV = registered voters

.

"Do you think abortion should be legal in all cases, legal in most cases, illegal in most cases, or illegal in all cases?"

.
Legal in
All Cases Legal in
Most Cases Illegal in
Most Cases Illegal in
All Cases Unsure
% % % % %
8/19-22/08 22 32 26 18 3
6/12-15/08 18 35 28 16 3
1/9-12/08 21 36 25 15 3

12/16-19/07
20 35 25 18 2

12/6-9/07
18 35 27 17 3
10/29 - 11/1/07 19 36 27 16 2
7/18-21/07 23 34 28 14 2

2/22-25/07
16 39 31 12 2

12/15-18/05
17 40 27 13 3

4/21-24/05
20 36 27 14 3
12/04 21 34 25 17 3
5/04 23 31 23 20 2
1/03 23 34 25 17 2
8/01 22 27 28 20 3
6/01 22 31 23 20 4
1/01 21 38 25 14 1
9/00 RV 20 35 25 16 3
7/00 20 33 26 17 4
9/99 20 37 26 15 2
3/99 21 34 27 15 3
7/98 19 35 29 13 4
8/96 22 34 27 14 3
6/96 24 34 25 14 2

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press survey. July 31-Aug. 10, 2008. N=2,905 adults nationwide. MoE ± 2. Aug. 2007 survey conducted by Schulman, Ronca & Bucuvalas.

.

"Do you think abortion should be legal in all cases, legal in most cases, illegal in most cases, or illegal in all cases?" Options rotated

.
Legal in
All Cases Legal in
Most Cases Illegal in
Most Cases Illegal in
All Cases Unsure

%

%

%

%

%

7/31 - 8/10/08

17

37

26

15

5

6/18-29/08

19

38

24

13

6

11/07

18

33

29

15

5

10/17-23/07

21

32

24

15

8

8/1-18/07

17

35

26

17

5

2/16 - 3/14/07

15

30

30

20

5

Time Poll conducted by Abt SRBI. July 31-Aug. 4, 2008. N=808 likely voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Which of these positions best represents your views about abortion? A woman should be able to get an abortion if she wants one in the first three months of pregnancy, no matter what the reason. Abortion should be legal ONLY in certain circumstances, such as when a woman's health is endangered or when the pregnancy results from rape or incest. Abortion should be illegal in all circumstances, even if the mother's life is in danger." Options rotated

.
Always Legal in
First 3 Months Legal in Certain
Circumstances Illegal in All
Circumstances No Answer/
Unsure
% % % %
7/31 - 8/4/08 46 40 10 4

.

"What if a presidential candidate took a position on abortion that was different from your own? Would you still consider voting for him because of his position on other issues, or would you not vote for him under any circumstances?"

.
Still Consider Not Vote For No Answer/
Unsure
% % %
7/31 - 8/4/08 73 20 6
6/18-25/08 71 23 5

Quinnipiac University Poll. July 8-13, 2008. N=1,783 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 2.3.

.

"Do you think abortion should be legal in all cases, legal in most cases, illegal in most cases or illegal in all cases?"

.

Always
Legal Usually
Legal Usually
Illegal Always
Illegal Unsure
% % % % %
7/8-13/08 19 38 24 14 5
8/7-13/07 21 36 24 13 6
4/25 - 5/1/07 17 37 26 13 7

11/28 - 12/4/05
19 38 25 14 4

7/21-25/05
20 37 24 12 7

5/18-23/05
18 37 27 14 5

3/2-7/05
19 35 24 15 6
12/04 16 41 26 13 5
7/04 18 35 27 13 6
5/04 20 35 26 14 6

.

"In general, do you agree or disagree with the 1973 Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision that established a woman's right to an abortion?"

.

Agree Disagree Unsure
% % %
7/8-13/08 63 33 5

8/7-13/07
62 32 6

12/05
63 32 5

7/05
65 30 6

5/05
63 33 5

Time Poll conducted by Abt SRBI. June 18-25, 2008. N=805 likely voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Which of these positions best represents your views about abortion? A woman should be able to get an abortion if she wants one, no matter what the reason, up until the time the fetus is viable, that is, can live on its own. Abortion should only be legal in certain circumstances, such as when a woman's health is endangered or when the pregnancy results from rape or incest. Abortion should be illegal in all circumstances, even if the mother's life is in danger."

.
Legal Until
Fetus Viable Sometimes
Legal Never
Legal No Answer/
Unsure
% % % %
6/18-25/08 43 41 10 6

Gallup Poll. May 8-11, 2008. N=1,017 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Do you think abortions should be legal under any circumstances, legal only under certain circumstances, or illegal in all circumstances?"

.
Legal
Under Any Legal Only
Under Certain Illegal
In All Unsure

%

%

%

%

5/8-11/08

28

54

17

2

5/10-13/07

26

55

18

1

5/8-11/06

30

53

15

2

11/11-13/05

26

56

16

2

6/24-26/05

24

55

20

1

5/2-5/05

23

53

22

2

3/21-23/05

23

55

20

2

5/2-4/04

24

56

19

1

10/03

26

55

17

2

5/03

23

57

19

1

1/03

24

57

18

1

5/02

25

51

22

2

3/02

27

53

19

1

2/02

26

54

18

2

8/01

26

56

17

1

5/01

26

58

15

1

3/01

26

51

18

5

4/00

28

51

19

2

1/00

26

56

15

3

5/99

27

55

16

2

1/98

23

59

17

1

11/97

26

55

17

2

8/97

22

61

15

2

9/96

24

52

17

7

7/96

25

58

15

2

4/90

31

53

12

4

7/80

25

53

18

4

2/79

22

54

19

5

12/77

22

55

19

4

4/75

21

54

22

3

.

"Thinking about how the abortion issue might affect your vote for major offices, would you only vote for a candidate who shares your views on abortion, or consider a candidate's position on abortion as just one of many important factors, or not see abortion as a major issue?" Options rotated

.
Must Share
Views One of Many
Factors Not a
Major Issue Unsure
% % % %

5/8-11/08

13

49

37

2

5/10-13/07
16 59 23 3

10/14-16/04
17 46 35 2

5/2-4/04
14 45 39 2

5/10-14/01
20 51 27 2

3/30 - 4/2/00
15 49 33 3

4/30 - 5/2/99
19 51 27 3

7/25-28/96
16 51 30 3

7/18-21/96
18 48 30 4

Associated Press-Ipsos poll conducted by Ipsos Public Affairs. Oct. 23-25, 2007. N=1,004 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.1.

.

"Which would you prefer for the public schools in your community? Provide birth control only to those students who have the consent of their parents. Provide birth control to all students who want it. Not provide birth control to any student."

.
Provide if
Have Consent Provide
To All Do Not
Provide Unsure

%

%

%

%

10/23-25/07

37

30

30

3

.

"Do you think making birth control available for teenagers would not encourage them to have sexual intercourse earlier or encourage them to have sexual intercourse earlier than they would have?"

.
Not
Encourage Encourage Unsure

%

%

%

10/23-25/07

49

46

5

.

"Do you think making birth control available for teenagers would reduce the number of pregnancies among teenagers, have no effect on the number of pregnancies among teenagers, or increase the number of pregnancies among teenagers?"

.
Reduce No Effect Increase Unsure

%

%

%

%

10/23-25/07

62

22

13

3

.

"What do you think is the better way to reduce the number of pregnancies among teenagers: by emphasizing sex education and birth control, or by emphasizing morality and abstinence?"

.
Sex Ed and
Birth Control Morality and
Abstinence Unsure

%

%

%

10/23-25/07

51

46

3

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Oct. 23-24, 2007. N=900 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Please tell me if you think abortion should be legal or illegal in each of the following situations . . . ."

.
Legal Illegal Unsure
% % %

"If the pregnancy was the result of rape or incest"

10/23-24/07
70 21 9

2/28 - 3/1/06
74 21 6

.

"If the pregnancy puts the mother's life at risk"

10/23-24/07
73 15 12
2/28 - 3/1/06 83 12 5

.

"If the pregnancy puts the mother's mental health at risk"

10/23-24/07
56 28 16
2/28 - 3/1/06 62 30 8

.

"If the baby has a fatal birth defect"

10/23-24/07
53 30 18

.

"If the pregnancy is unwanted"

10/23-24/07
39 50 11
2/28 - 3/1/06 43 49 8

.

"Do you need to know a candidate's position on the issue of abortion before deciding your vote for president or is that not something you need to know?"

.
Need to
Know Don't Need
To Know Unsure
% % %

10/23-24/07
45 53 2

.
"On the issue of abortion, would you say you are more pro-life or more pro-choice?"

.
Pro-life Pro-choice Both/Mix
(vol.) Unsure
% % % %

10/23-24/07
37 48 8 7

5/15-16/07
39 51 8 3

2/13-14/07
40 51 5 4
2/28 - 3/1/06 41 49 7 3
4/25-26/05 42 47 8 3
4/04 47 44 6 3
7/03 44 44 6 6
4/03 41 49 5 5
1/02 41 47 5 7
1/01 42 47 7 4
7/00 38 54 5 3
1/00 44 43 8 5
6/99 44 42 9 5

The Harris Poll. Oct. 16-23, 2007. N=1,052 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"In 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that states laws which made it illegal for a woman to have an abortion up to three months of pregnancy were unconstitutional, and that the decision on whether a woman should have an abortion up to three months of pregnancy should be left to the woman and her doctor to decide. In general, do you favor or oppose this part of the U.S. Supreme Court decision making abortions up to three months of pregnancy legal?"

.
Favor Oppose Unsure
% % %

10/16-23/07
56 40 4

4/4-10/06
49 47 4

.

"In general, do you favor permitting a woman who wants one to have an abortion in all circumstances, some circumstances or no circumstances?"

.
All Some No Unsure
% % % %

10/16-23/07
25 52 20 2

4/4-10/06
24 53 20 4

.

"Do you favor laws that would make it more difficult for a woman to get an abortion, favor laws that would make it easier to get an abortion or should no change be made to existing abortion laws?"

.
More
Difficult Easier No Change Unsure
% % % %

10/16-23/07
42 16 38 4

4/4-10/06
40 15 40 6

Los Angeles Times/Bloomberg Poll. Oct. 19-22, 2007. N=1,039 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3. RV = registered voters

.

"Which comes closest to your view on abortion: abortion should always be legal, or should be legal most of the time, or should be made illegal except in cases of rape, incest and to save the mother's life, or abortion should be made illegal without any exceptions?"

.
Always
Legal Legal
Most of
the Time Illegal
With a Few
Exceptions Illegal
Without
Exceptions Unsure
% % % % %

10/19-22/07 RV
31 13 40 10 6

1/15-17/05 Adults
24 19 41 12 4

CBS News Poll. Oct. 12-16, 2007. N=1,143 registered voters nationwide.

.

.

"What is your personal feeling about abortion? (1) It should be permitted in all cases. (2) It should be permitted, but subject to greater restrictions than it is now. (3) It should be permitted only in cases such as rape, incest and to save the woman's life. OR, (4) It should only be permitted to save the woman's life."

.

.
All Cases Greater
Restrictions Rape, Incest,
Woman's
Life Only
Woman's
Life Never (vol.) Unsure

%

%

%

%

%

%

10/12-16/07

26

16

34

16

4

4

1/18-21/07

31

16

30

12

5

6

4/6-9/06

29

17

33

14

4

3

1/5-8/06

27

15

33

17

5

3

7/29 - 8/2/05

28

15

33

15

5

4

7/13-14/05

25

14

38

15

3

5

CNN/Opinion Research Corporation Poll. Oct. 12-14, 2007. N=1,212 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Do you think abortion should be legal under any circumstances, legal only under certain circumstances, or illegal in all circumstances?"

.
Always
Legal Sometimes
Legal Always
Illegal Unsure

%

%

%

%

10/12-14/07

23

54

22

1

8/30 - 9/2/06

24

50

24

2

.

"Regardless of whether you think abortion should be allowed or not, do you personally believe having an abortion is wrong?"

.
Yes No Unsure

%

%

%

10/12-14/07

60

36

4

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Sept. 4-9, 2007. N=1,263 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Which of these comes closest to your view? Abortion should be generally available to those who want it. OR, Abortion should be available, but under stricter limits than it is now. OR, Abortion should not be permitted."

.
Generally
Available Stricter
Limits Not
Permitted Unsure

%

%

%

%

9/4-9/07

34

39

25

2

7/9-17/07

41

34

22

3

5/18-23/07

39

37

21

3

3/7-11/07

34

41

23

2

1/20-25/06

38

39

21

2

12/2-6/05

38

39

20

3

4/13-16/05

36

38

24

2

3/21-22/05

35

37

25

3

2/24-28/05

35

40

23

2

1/14-18/05

36

35

26

3

11/04

34

44

21

1

7/04

34

42

22

2

1/03

39

38

22

1

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press and Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey conducted by Schulman, Ronca & Bucuvalas. Aug. 1-18, 2007. N=3,002 adults nationwide. MoE ± 2.

.

"Now I would like to ask your opinion about a specific abortion procedure known as 'late-term' abortion or 'partial birth' abortion, which is sometimes performed on women during the last few months of pregnancy. Do you think that this procedure should be legal or illegal?"

.
Legal Illegal Unsure

%

%

%

8/1-18/07

17

75

8

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. July 18-21, 2007. N=1,125 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3. Fieldwork by TNS. RV = registered voters

.

"The Supreme Court also recently upheld a federal restriction on the procedure known as partial birth abortion, banning the procedure except when a woman's life is at risk. Do you approve or disapprove of this decision?"

.
Approve Disapprove Unsure
% % %
7/18-21/07 55 43 2

Gallup Poll. May 10-13, 2007. N=1,003 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"With respect to the abortion issue, would you consider yourself to be pro-choice or pro-life?"

.
Pro-Choice Pro-Life Mixed/
Neither (vol.) Don't Know
What Terms
Mean (vol.) Unsure
% % % % %

5/10-13/07
49 45 3 2 2

5/8-11/06
51 41 4 2 3

1/6-8/06
53 42 1 2 2

8/28-30/05
54 38 3 2 3

7/22-24/05
51 42 3 3 1

5/2-5/05
48 44 3 3 2

10/14-16/04
52 41 2 3 2

5/2-4/04
49 44 2 3 2

10/24-26/03
48 45 3 3 1

5/5-7/03
48 45 2 4 1

5/6-9/02
47 46 3 3 1
8/10-12/01 46 46 3 3 2
8/3-5/01 52 39 4 3 2
7/01 50 40 4 3 3
5/01 48 42 4 4 2
3/01 47 41 4 6 2
2/01 55 38 5 1 1
10/00 47 45 3 2 3
7/00 50 40 4 2 4
4/00 48 43 2 4 3
5/99 48 42 3 4 3
1/98 48 45 3 2 2
11/97 51 40 3 3 -
8/97 47 44 3 3 3
7/96 53 36 5 3 3

.

"Would you like to see the Supreme Court overturn its 1973 Roe versus Wade decision concerning abortion, or not?"

.
Yes, Overturn No,
Not Overturn Unsure
% % %

5/10-13/07
35 53 12

5/8-11/06
32 55 13

1/20-22/06
25 66 9
7/7-10/05 28 63 9

.

"Now I would like to ask your opinion about a specific abortion procedure known as 'late term' abortion or 'partial birth' abortion, which is sometimes performed on women during the last few months of pregnancy. Do you think that this procedure should be legal or illegal?"

.
Legal Illegal Unsure
% % %

5/10-13/07
22 72 5

CNN/Opinion Research Corporation Poll. May 4-6, 2007. N=1,028 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Now I would like to ask your opinion about a specific abortion procedure known as a 'late-term' abortion or 'partial-birth' abortion, which is sometimes performed on women during the last few months of pregnancy. Do you think that the government should make this procedure illegal, or do you think that the procedure should be legal?"

.
Illegal Legal Unsure

%

%

%

5/4-6/07

66

28

5

Quinnipiac University Poll. April 25-May 1, 2007. N=1,166 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 2.9 (for all registered voters).

.

"If you agreed with a presidential candidate on other issues, but not on the issue of abortion, do you think you could still vote for that candidate or not?"

.
Could Could Not Unsure
% % %
4/25 - 5/1/07 69 22 9

.

"Have you heard or read anything about the recent Supreme Court decision on partial birth abortion?"

.
Yes No Unsure
% % %
4/25 - 5/1/07 64 34 2

.
Asked of those who have heard or read about Supreme Court decision:
"Do you agree or disagree with the recent Supreme Court decision on partial birth abortion?"

.
Agree Disagree Unsure
% % %
4/25 - 5/1/07 41 41 19

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Neil Newhouse (R). April 20-23, 2007. N=1,004 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.1 (for all adults).

.

"Which of the following best represents your views about abortion? The choice on abortion should be left up to the woman and her doctor. Abortion should be legal only in cases in which pregnancy results from rape or incest or when the life of the woman is at risk. OR, Abortion should be illegal in all circumstances." N=1,004 adults, MoE ± 3.1

.
Woman
and Doctor Rape, Incest,
Life of Woman Always
Illegal Unsure
% % % %

4/20-23/07
55 30 13 2
5/12-16/05 55 29 14 2
11/03 53 29 15 3
1/03 59 29 9 3
1/97 60 26 11 3
8/96 56 30 12 2
3/96 56 31 10 3
12/95 60 28 10 2
7/91 60 31 8 1
6/91 57 36 7 -
7/90 57 33 8 2

.

"As you may know, the Supreme Court recently upheld a law that makes the procedure commonly known as a partial birth abortion illegal. Do you favor or oppose this ruling by the Supreme Court?" Half sample, MoE ± 4.4 (Form A)

.
Favor Oppose Unsure
% % %

4/20-23/07
53 34 13

.

"As you may know, the Supreme Court recently upheld a law that makes the procedure commonly known as a partial birth abortion illegal. A partial-birth abortion is a procedure performed in the late-term of pregnancy, when in some cases the baby is old enough to survive on its own outside the womb. The court's ruling outlaws using this procedure, and does not make an exception for the health of the mother. Do you favor or oppose this ruling by the Supreme Court?" Half sample, MoE ± 4.4 (Form B)

.
Favor Oppose Unsure
% % %

4/20-23/07
47 43 10

CNN/Opinion Research Corporation Poll. Jan. 19-21, 2007. N=1,008 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Would you like to see the Supreme Court overturn its 1973 Roe versus Wade decision concerning abortion, or not?"

.
Would Would Not Unsure

%

%

%

1/19-21/07

29

62

9

Newsweek Poll conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Oct. 26-27, 2006. N=1,002 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3 (for all adults).

.

"Which side of the political debate on the abortion issue do you sympathize with more: the right-to-life movement that believes abortion is the taking of human life and should be outlawed; OR, the pro-choice movement that believes a woman has the right to choose what happens to her body, including deciding to have an abortion?" Options rotated

.
Right-to-Life Pro-Choice Neither (vol.) Unsure
% % % %
ALL adults 39 53 3 5
Republicans 62 31 4 3
Democrats 25 69 2 4
Independents 35 57 4 4

Trend:

11/10-11/05
34 57 5 4
10/29-30/98 39 51 5 5

CNN Poll conducted by Opinion Research Corporation. Aug. 30-Sept. 2, 2006. N=1,004 adults nationwide.

.

"Would you favor or oppose a law in your state that would ban all abortions except those necessary to save the life of the mother?" Half sample, MoE ± 4.5

.
Favor Oppose Unsure

%

%

%

8/30 - 9/2/06

45

51

3

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press and Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey conducted by Schulman, Ronca & Bucuvalas (SRBI). July 6-19, 2006. N=996 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.5. (Dec. 2005 and earlier conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International.)

.

"Which comes closer to your view? Abortion should be generally available to those who want it. Abortion should be available but under stricter limits than it is now. Abortion should be against the law except in cases of rape, incest and to save the woman's life. Abortion should not be permitted at all."

.
Generally
Available Stricter
Limits Rape, Incest,
Woman's
Life Only Not
Permitted
At All Unsure
% % % % %

7/6-19/06
31 20 35 11 3

12/7-11/05
35 20 31 11 3
11/9-27/05 30 19 31 16 4
7/13-17/05 35 23 31 9 2

.

"Regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal, do you personally believe that having an abortion is morally wrong in nearly all circumstances, morally wrong in some circumstances, or is it not a moral issue?"

.
Nearly
Always
Morally
Wrong Sometimes
Morally
Wrong Not a
Moral Issue Unsure
% % % %

7/6-19/06
24 49 24 3
7/13-17/05 29 41 26 4

.

"Which comes closer to your view about the abortion issue? The country needs to find a middle ground on abortion laws. OR, There's no room for compromise when it comes to abortion laws." Options rotated

.
Middle
Ground No Room for
Compromise Unsure
% % %

7/6-19/06
66 29 5

.

"Do you think the question of whether abortion should be legally permitted is something that should be decided at the national level, or is it something that each state should decide for itself?"

.
National
Level Each State Unsure
% % %

7/6-19/06
55 39 6

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Bill McInturff (R). June 9-12, 2006. N=1,002 adults nationwide. Results below are among registered voters.

.

"I'm going to read you some positions that someone running for Congress could take. For each one, please tell me whether you would be more likely to vote for a candidate for Congress who takes this position, less likely to vote for this candidate, or would it not make a difference to you either way? . . ."

.
More Likely Less Likely No Difference Unsure
% % % %

"Favors keeping abortion legal" Half sample (Form A)
6/9-12/06 46 33 19 2

.
"Favors making abortion illegal, except in cases of rape, incest, or when the health of the mother is at risk" Half sample (Form B)
6/9-12/06 40 42 16 2

Los Angeles Times/Bloomberg Poll. April 8-11, 2006. N=1,357 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3 (for all adults).

.

"As you may know, South Dakota adopted a law that would ban all abortions, except to save the life of the mother. Do you approve or disapprove of the South Dakota abortion law?"

.
Approve Disapprove Unsure
% % %
ALL adults 34 58 8
Democrats 24 69 7
Independents 27 67 6
Republicans 52 42 6

The Harris Poll. April 4-10, 2006. N=1,016 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Recently, the South Dakota state legislature passed a law that would ban all abortions, except to save the life of the mother. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose a similar law if it was introduced in your state?

.
Strongly
Support Somewhat
Support Somewhat
Oppose Strongly
Oppose Unsure
% % % % %

4/4-10/06
25 19 17 35 4

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International. March 8-12, 2006. N=1,405 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Recently, South Dakota passed a law that bans abortion in all cases except to save the life of the mother. Would you favor or oppose a law like this at the national level?"

.
Favor Oppose Unsure
% % %

3/8-12/06
34 58 8

.

"As I list some programs and proposals that are being discussed in this country today, please tell me whether you strongly favor, favor, oppose, or strongly oppose each. Making it more difficult for a woman to get an abortion."

.
Strongly
Favor Favor Oppose Strongly
Oppose Unsure
% % % % %

3/8-12/06
15 22 32 24 7

Associated Press-Ipsos poll conducted by Ipsos-Public Affairs. Feb. 28-March 2, 2006. N=1,001 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.1.

.

"Which comes closest to your opinion on abortion? Abortion should be . . . ."

.
Legal in
All Cases Legal in
Most Cases Illegal in
Most Cases Illegal in
All Cases Unsure
% % % % %

2/28 - 3/2/06
19 32 27 16 6

.

"Regardless of your opinion about abortion, do you think the federal government should decide whether abortion should be legal or not, or should each state government decide?"

.
Federal
Government Each State
Government Unsure
% % %

2/28 - 3/2/06
46 43 11

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Feb. 28-March 1, 2006. N=900 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3 (for all registered voters).

.

"Recently the South Dakota legislature passed a law that bans abortion in all cases other than to save the life of the mother. Would you support or oppose this law in the state where you live?"

.
Support Oppose Unsure
% % %
ALL reg. voters 35 59 6
Democrats 26 70 4
Republicans 49 47 4
Independents 32 58 11

.

"Do you think partial-birth abortions -- an abortion procedure conducted late in pregnancy -- should be banned or not?"

.
Banned Not Banned Unsure
% % %
2/28 - 3/1/06 61 28 11
7/98 54 28 18
5/96 46 37 17

.

"Five years from now, do you think there will be more restrictions and it will be harder to get an abortion in the United States, or will there be fewer restrictions and it will be easier to get an abortion?"

.
More
Restrictions Fewer
Restrictions No Change
(vol.) Unsure
% % % %
2/28 - 3/1/06 55 24 12 9

Gallup Poll. Jan. 9-12, 2006. N=1,003 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.
"Would you like to see abortion laws in this country made more strict, less strict, or remain as they are?"

.
More Strict Less Strict Same Other (vol.) Unsure
% % % % %

1/9-12/06
38 20 39 1 3
1/3-5/05 38 19 41 - 2
1/12-15/04 37 20 40 1 2
1/13-16/03 36 21 39 1 3
4/5-7/02 39 17 41 1 2
1/7-9/02 39 19 39 - 3
1/10-14/01 34 17 46 1 2

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Bill McInturff (R). Dec. 9-12, 2005. N=approx. 500 adults nationwide. MoE ± 4.4.

.

"The Supreme Court's 1973 Roe versus Wade decision established a woman's constitutional right to an abortion, at least in the first three months of pregnancy. Would you like to see the Supreme Court completely overturn its Roe versus Wade decision, or not?"

.
Overturn Not
Overturn Unsure
% % %

12/9-12/05
30 66 4

7/8-11/05
29 65 6

CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll. Nov. 11-13, 2005. N=1,006 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals. How about ?"

.
Favor Oppose Unsure

%

%

%

.

"A law requiring women under 18 to get parental consent for any abortion"

11/11-13/05

69

28

3

1/10-12/03

73

24

3

7/25-28/96

74

23

3

1/16-19/92

70

23

7

.

"A law requiring that the husband of a married woman be notified if she decides to have an abortion"

11/11-13/05

64

34

2

1/10-12/03

72

26

2

7/25-28/96

70

26

4

1/16-19/92

73

25

2

.

"A constitutional amendment to ban abortion in all circumstances, except when necessary to save the life of the mother"

11/11-13/05

37

61

2

1/10-12/03

38

59

3

7/25-28/96

38

59

3

1/16-19/92

42

56

2

Pew Research Center/Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Nov. 3-6, 2005. Adults nationwide.

.

"In 1973 the Roe versus Wade decision established a woman's constitutional right to an abortion, at least in the first three months of pregnancy. Would you like to see the Supreme Court completely overturn its Roe versus Wade decision, or not?" Form 1 (N=589, MoE ± 4.5)

.
Yes No Unsure
% % %
11/3-6/05 26 65 9
7/13-17/05 29 65 6
6/8-12/05 30 63 7
1/03 31 62 7

.

"In 1973 the Roe versus Wade decision established a woman's constitutional right to an abortion, at least in the first three months of pregnancy. Would you like to see the Supreme Court overturn its Roe versus Wade decision, or not?" Form 2 (N=612, MoE ± 4.5)

.
Yes No Unsure
% % %
11/3-6/05 32 57 11

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Aug. 25-28, 2005. N=1,006 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3. Fieldwork by TNS Intersearch.

.

.

"Would you like to see the Supreme Court make it harder to get an abortion than it is now, make it easier to get an abortion than it is now, or leave the ability to get an abortion the same as it is now?" Options rotated

.

.
Harder Easier Same Unsure

%

%

%

%

8/25-28/05

42

9

47

2


CBS News Poll. July 29-Aug. 2, 2005. N=1,222 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3 (for all adults).

.

.

"More than thirty years ago, the Supreme Court's decision in Roe versus Wade established a constitutional right for women to obtain legal abortions in this country. In general, do you think the Court's decision was a good thing or a bad thing?"

.

.
Good
Thing Bad
Thing Both
(vol.) Unsure

%

%

%

%

ALL

60

35

1

4


Republicans

41

55

2

2


Democrats

73

22

1

4


Independents

64

30

1

5



.

.

Trend:

7/13-14/05

59

32

4

5


Pew Research Center/Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International. July 13-17, 2005. N=1,502 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Regardless of whether or not you think abortion should be legal, do you think it would be a good thing to reduce the number of abortions performed in the United States, or don't you feel this way?"

.
Good Thing Don't Feel
This Way Unsure
% % %
7/13-17/05 59 33 8

CBS News Poll. July 13-14, 2005. N=632 adults nationwide. MoE ± 4.

.

.

"Would you favor or oppose requiring that at least one parent be told before a girl under 18 years of age could have an abortion?"

.

.
Favor Oppose Unsure

%

%

%

7/13-14/05

80

17

3



CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll. June 24-26, 2005. N=1,009 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"If one of the U.S. Supreme Court justices retired, would you want the new Supreme Court justice to be someone who would vote to overturn Roe v. Wade -- the decision that legalized abortion -- or vote to uphold it?"

.
Vote To
Overturn Vote To
Uphold Unsure

%

%

%

6/24-26/05

29

65

6

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. June 2-5, 2005. N=1,002 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3. Fieldwork by TNS.

.

"Who do you trust more to deal with the issue of abortion: your state legislature or your state courts?" Options rotated

.
State
Legislature State Courts Both
Equally (vol.) Neither (vol.) Unsure
% % % % %
6/2-5/05 44 44 1 10 2

Gallup Poll. May 2-5, 2005. N=1,005 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"What is your impression of how most Americans feel about abortion? Do you think most Americans feel abortions should be legal under any circumstances, abortions should be legal only under certain circumstances, or abortions should be illegal in all circumstances?" Options rotated

.
Always
Legal Sometimes
Legal Always
Illegal Unsure

%

%

%

%

5/2-5/05

13

67

16

4

5/10-14/01

16

66

11

7

.

"Now thinking about future nominees to the United States Supreme Court, how important is it to you, personally, that they share your views on the abortion issue: very important, somewhat important, not too important, or not important at all?"

.
Very
Important Somewhat
Important Not Too
Important Not
Important
At All Unsure

% % % % %

5/2-5/05
45 31 15 8 1

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. April 25-26, 2005. N=900 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Do you think a female under age 18 should be required by state law to notify at least one parent or guardian before having an abortion?"

.
Yes No Unsure
% % %
4/25-26/05 78 17 5

.

"Do you think a female under age 18 should be required by state law to get permission or consent from at least one parent or guardian before having an abortion?"

.
Yes No Unsure
% % %
4/25-26/05 72 22 6

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Feb. 24-28, 2005. N=1,111 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Regardless of how you usually vote, which party comes closer to sharing your view on abortion: the Democratic Party or the Republican Party?"

.
Democra-
tic Party Republi-
can Party Both
(vol.) Neither
(vol.) Unsure

%

%

%

%

%

2/24-28/05

45

35

1

5

14

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Jan. 14-18, 2005. N=1,118 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"By the end of George W. Bush's second term in office, do you think most abortions in the United States will be legal or will most abortions be against the law?"

.
Legal Against
the Law Unsure

%

%

%

1/14-18/05

47

43

10

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Dec. 16-19, 2004. N=1,004 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3. Fieldwork by TNS.

.

"How important is it to you that the next person nominated to join the U.S. Supreme Court agrees with your position on abortion -- is that extremely important to you, very important, somewhat important, or less important than that?"

.
Extremely Very Somewhat Less Unsure
% % % % %
12/04 26 28 30 15 1

Quinnipiac University Poll. Dec. 7-12, 2004. N=1,529 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 2.5 (for all registered voters).

.

"The 1973 Supreme Court ruling called Roe. v. Wade made abortion in the first three months of pregnancy legal. Do you think President Bush should nominate Supreme Court justices who would uphold the Roe. v. Wade decision, or nominate Supreme Court justices who would overturn the Roe v. Wade decision?"

.
Uphold Overturn Unsure
% % %
ALL 50 34 16
Republicans 36 47 17
Democrats 59 26 14
Independents 55 30 15

.

"Do you think the next person nominated to join the United States Supreme Court should or should not publicly state his or her position on abortion before being approved by the U.S. Senate for the job?"

.
Should Should
Not Unsure
% % %
12/04 62 32 6

"Do you think abortion should be legal in all cases, legal in most cases, illegal in most cases or illegal in all cases?"

.
Always
Legal Usually
Legal Usually
Illegal Always
Illegal Unsure
% % % % %
12/04 16 41 26 13 5
7/04 18 35 27 13 6
5/04 20 35 26 14 6

Associated Press-Ipsos poll conducted by Ipsos-Public Affairs. Nov. 19-21, 2004. N=1,000 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"As you may know, President Bush may have the opportunity to appoint several new justices to the U.S. Supreme Court during his second term. The 1973 Supreme Court ruling called Roe v. Wade made abortion in the first three months of pregnancy legal. Do you think President Bush should nominate Supreme Court justices who would uphold the Roe v. Wade decision, or nominate justices who would overturn the Roe v. Wade decision?"

.
Uphold Overturn Unsure
% % %
11/19-21/04 59 31 10

.

"Do you think the next person nominated to join the Supreme Court should or should not publicly state his or her position on abortion before being approved by the U.S. Senate for the job?"

.
Should Should Not Unsure
% % %
11/19-21/04 61 36 3

CBS News/New York Times Poll. Nov. 18-21, 2004. N=885 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3 (for all adults).

.

"Should pharmacists who personally oppose birth control for religious reasons be able to refuse to sell birth control pills to women who have a prescription for them, or shouldn't pharmacists be able to refuse to sell birth control pills?"

.
Should Be
Able To
Refuse Should Not
Be Able To
Refuse Unsure

%

%

%

ALL

16

78

6

Republicans

25

70

5

Democrats

12

85

3

Independents

14

78

8

.

"Is it possible you would ever vote for a candidate who does not share your views on the issue of abortion, or is the subject so important that you could not vote for a candidate who disagrees with you?"

.
Yes,
Possible No,
Could Not Depends
(vol.) Unsure

%

%

%

%

11/04

54

38

5

3

Associated Press-Ipsos poll conducted by Ipsos-Public Affairs. Nov. 3-5, 2004. N=844 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.5.

.

"The 1973 Supreme Court ruling called Roe v. Wade made abortion in the first three months of pregnancy legal. Do you think President Bush should nominate Supreme Court justices who would uphold the Roe v. Wade decision, or nominate Supreme Court justices who would overturn the Roe v. Wade decision?"

.
Uphold Overturn Unsure
% % %
11/04 61 34 5

CBS News Poll. May 20-23, 2004. N=923 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3 (total sample).

.

"Which of these comes closest to your view? Abortion should be generally available to those who want it. Abortion should be available, but under stricter limits than it is now. OR, Abortion should not be permitted."

.
Generally
Available Stricter
Limits Not
Permitted Unsure

%

%

%

%

ALL

36

37

25

2

Catholics

34

37

28

1

NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Robert Teeter (R). Nov. 8-10, 2003. N=1,003 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.1.

.

"As you may know, President Bush and the U.S. Congress recently approved a new law that prohibits a procedure commonly known as a 'partial-birth abortion.' Do you favor or oppose this new law?"

.
Favor Oppose Unsure
% % %
11/03 47 40 13

CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll. Oct. 24-26, 2003. N=1,006 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Now I would like to ask your opinion about a specific abortion procedure known as 'late-term' abortion or 'partial-birth' abortion, which is sometimes performed on women during the last few months of pregnancy. Do you think that the government should make this procedure illegal, or do you think that this procedure should be legal?" Options rotated
Illegal Legal Unsure

%

%

%

10/03

68

25

7

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. July 15-16, 2003. N=900 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

“Do you believe that human life begins at conception, or once the baby may be able to survive outside the mother's womb with medical assistance, or when the baby is actually born?”
%

.
At conception 55
Survive outside womb 23
At birth 13
Not sure 9


ABC News Poll. July 16-20, 2003. N=1,027 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3. Fieldwork by TNS Intersearch.

.

"Do you think the late-term abortion procedure known as dilation and extraction, or partial-birth abortion, should be legal or illegal?"
Legal Illegal Depends
(vol.) No
Opinion
% % % %

7/03

20

62

12

5

.

Asked of respondents who answered "Illegal," "Depends" or "No opinion":
"What if it would prevent a serious threat to the woman’s health? In that case, do you think the late-term abortion procedure known as dilation and extraction, or partial-birth abortion, should be legal or illegal?"

.
Aggregate responses to both questions: Answered
"Legal" to
First
Question Answered
"Legal" to
Follow-up
Question Illegal Depends
(vol.) No
Opinion
% % % % %

7/03

20

41

33

3

3


Los Angeles Times Poll. Jan. 30-Feb. 2, 2003. N=1,385 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3 (total sample).

.
"Do you favor or oppose a law which would make it illegal to perform a specific abortion procedure conducted in the last six months of a woman's pregnancy known as a partial-birth abortion, except in cases necessary to save the life of the mother?"
ALL Demo-
crats Indepen-
dents Repub-
licans
% % % %

Favor

57

53

56

65

Oppose

38

42

39

31

Don't know

5

5

5

4


CBS News/New York Times Poll. Jan. 19-21, 2003. N=814 adults nationwide. MoE ± 4 (total sample).

.
ALL Repub-
licans Demo-
crats Indepen-
dents
% % % %

"Over the next two years, do you think abortion will remain generally available, or abortion will be available but under stricter limits than it is now, or abortion will not be permitted?"
Generally available 41 41 37 45
Available, but under stricter limits 43 48 47 37
Will not be permitted 11 8 10 14
Don't know/No answer 5 3 6 4

ABC News/Washington Post Poll. Jan. 16-20, 2003. N=1,133 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3. Field work by TNS Intersearch.

.

"Would you like to see the government and the courts make it harder to get an abortion than it is now, make it easier to get an abortion than it is now, or leave the ability to get an abortion the same as it is now?" Options rotated
Harder Easier Same No
Opinion
% % % %
1/03 42 15 41 2

.

"The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1973 that a woman can have an abortion if she wants one at any time during the first three months of pregnancy. Do you favor or oppose that ruling?"
Favor Oppose No
Opinion
% % %
1/03 54 44 2
7/90 56 39 5


Time/CNN Poll conducted by Harris Interactive. Jan. 15-16, 2003. N=1,010 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.1.

.
"Which of these positions best represents your views about abortion? A woman should be able to get an abortion if she decides she wants one no matter what the reason. Abortion should only be legal in certain circumstances, such as when a woman's health is endangered or when the pregnancy results from rape or incest. Abortion should be illegal in all circumstances."
Always
Legal Sometimes
Legal Always
Illegal Not
Sure
% % % %
1/03 39 42 15 4
7/01 39 40 17 4
1/01 35 50 12 3
3/99 38 46 12 4
1/98 38 43 16 3
5/96 40 46 11 3

.
"Thinking about abortion: If you had to choose, would you describe yourself as being more pro-choice -- supporting a woman's right to have an abortion -- or more pro-life -- protecting the rights of unborn children?"
Pro-Choice Pro-Life Mixed/
Neither
(vol.) Unsure
% % % %
1/03 49 45 - 6
7/01 46 47 4 3
1/00 46 48 3 3
3/99 46 43 5 6

.
"Do you favor or oppose the Supreme Court ruling that women have the right to have an abortion during the first three months of their pregnancy?"
Favor Oppose Unsure
% % %
1/03 55 40 5
5/98 55 39 6
4/92 59 35 6
4/89 54 39 7


CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll. Jan. 10-12, 2003. N=1,002 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.

"Now I am going to read some specific situations under which an abortion might be considered. For each one, please say whether you think abortion should be legal in that situation, or illegal. How about ?"
Legal Illegal Depends
(vol.) Unsure

%

%

%

%


"When the woman's life is endangered"

85

11

2

2

.

.


"When the woman's physical health is endangered"

77

17

4

2

.

.


"When the pregnancy was caused by rape or incest"

76

19

2

3

.

.


"When the woman's mental health is endangered"

63

32

3

2

.

.


"When there is evidence that the baby may be physically impaired"

56

37

4

3

.

.


"When there is evidence that the baby may be mentally impaired"

55

39

3

3

.

.


"When the woman or family cannot afford to raise the child"

35

61

2

2

.

.

"Thinking more generally: Do you think abortion should generally be legal or generally illegal during each of the following stages of pregnancy? How about ?"
Legal Illegal Depends
(vol.) Unsure

%

%

%

%


"In the first three months of pregnancy"

66

29

3

2

.

.


"In the second three months of pregnancy"

25

68

4

3

.

.


"In the last three months of pregnancy"

10

84

4

2

.

.
"Next, do you favor or oppose each of the following proposals. How about ?"
Favor Oppose Unsure

%

%

%


"A law requiring doctors to inform patients about alternatives to abortion before performing the procedure"

88

11

1

.

.

.

.


"A law requiring women seeking abortions to wait 24 hours before having the procedure done"

78

19

3

.

.

.

.


"A law which would make it illegal to perform a specific abortion procedure conducted in the last six months of pregnancy known as a 'partial-birth abortion,' except in cases necessary to save the life of the mother"

70

25

5

.

.

.

.
"As you may know, in 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court announced a landmark decision on abortion known as Roe versus Wade. Do you think that decision was a good thing or a bad thing for the country?" Options were rotated
Good
Thing Bad
Thing Unsure

%

%

%

1/03

53

30

17


Los Angeles Times Poll. Dec. 12-15, 2002. N=1,305 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3 (total sample).

.

"The United States Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision in 1973, called Roe versus Wade, which legalized abortion. Generally speaking, are you in favor of the Supreme Court decision which permits a woman to get an abortion from a doctor at any time, or are you opposed to that, or are you indifferent on the subject -- or haven't you heard enough about that yet to say?"
ALL Demo-
crats Indepen-
dents Repub-
licans


%

%

%

%


In favor

46

52

55

32


Indifferent

11

10

11

11


Opposed

37

28

30

54


Haven't heard enough

3

7

1

2


Don't know

3

3

3

1


FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. Jan. 9-10, 2002. N=900 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.
"The 1973 Supreme Court decision called Roe v. Wade made abortion in the first three months of pregnancy legal. Do you think the Supreme Court should overturn Roe v. Wade or let it stand?"

.
Overturn
Roe Let It
Stand Not
Sure
% % %
1/02 26 59 15
1/01 29 62 9
6/99 29 63 8
1/98 30 64 6

ABC News.com Poll. Sept. 6-10, 2000. N=1,006 adults nationwide. MoE +/- 3 (total sample).

.
"There is a pill called RU-486 used in Europe that causes an abortion when it's taken in the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Do you think it should be legal or illegal for doctors to prescribe RU-486 in the United States?"
ALL Demo-
crats Indepen-
dents Repub-
licans
% % % %
Legal 45 54 47 34
Illegal 47 39 44 58
No opinion 9 7 9 8


ABC News/Washington Post Poll. July 20-23, 2000. N=1,228 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.
Asked of half the sample:
"How important will handling the abortion issue be to you in deciding how to vote in the 2000 presidential election in November: very important, somewhat important, not too important or not important at all?"
Very Some-
what Not
Too Not
At All No
Opinion
% % % % %
7/00 48 26 13 11 1
4/00 50 27 14 9 1

.
"Which presidential candidate, Gore or Bush, do you trust to do a better job handling the abortion issue?"
Gore Bush Both
(vol.) Neither
(vol.) No
Opinion
% % % % %
7/00 41 40 2 8 9
4/00 46 39 2 6 8


Fox News/Opinion Dynamics Poll. April 26-27, 2000. N=903 registered voters nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.
"This week the U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments in a case that will decide whether states can legally ban partial-birth abortions -- that is, abortions that are conducted later in the pregnancy than other abortions and require the fetus to be partially delivered. If you were one of the justices, would you vote to allow states to ban partial-birth abortions?"
%
Would allow states to ban 61
Would not 30
Not sure 9


CNN/USA Today/Gallup Poll. Nov. 18-21, 1999. N=1,010 adults nationwide. MoE ± 3.

.
"As you may know, countries that belong to the United Nations are required to pay annual dues to remain a part of the UN. In terms of international organizations which perform abortions or promote abortion rights in other countries, do you think the United States should allow some of its UN dues to go to these organizations, OR, do you think the U.S. should prevent any of its dues money from going to these organizations?"
%
Allow some dues to go to these organizations 44
Prevent any of U.S. dues money from going 50
No opinion 6


CBS News/New York Times Poll. Nov. 4-7, 1999. N=1,162 adults nationwide. MoE +/- 3.

.
"How important is it to you that the presidential candidate you vote for shares your views on the issue of abortion: very important, somewhat important, or not important at all?"
ALL Repub-
licans Demo-
crats Indepen-
dents
% % % %
Very important 38 37 40 37
Somewhat important 46 49 43 45
Not important at all 15 13 16 16
Don't know/No answer 1 1 1 2


NBC News/Wall Street Journal Poll conducted by the polling organizations of Peter Hart (D) and Robert Teeter (R). June 16-19, 1999. N=2,011 adults nationwide.

.
"Let me read you two positions on the issue of abortion. Between these positions, which do you tend to side with more? Position A: Government should pass more laws that restrict the availability of abortions. Position B: The government should not interfere with a woman's access to abortion."
%
A. Should restrict availability 30
B. Should not interfere with access 65
Not sure 5


Gallup/CNN/USA Today Poll. April 30-May 2, 1999. N=1,014 adults nationwide.

.
"If you could vote on this issue directly, would you vote for or against a law which would make it illegal to perform a specific abortion procedure conducted in the last six months of pregnancy known as a 'partial birth abortion,' except in cases necessary to save the life of the mother?"
Favor Making
It Illegal Oppose Making
It Illegal Unsure
% % %
5/99 61 34 5


Newsweek Poll conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates. October 29-30, 1998. N=753 adults nationwide.

.
"In general, which party comes closer to your view on abortion: the Republican Party or the Democratic Party?"
%
Democratic Party 40
Republican Party 36
Both/Neither (vol.) 9
Don't know 15

.
"Now I have some more general questions about abortion. Do you personally believe that abortion is wrong?"
%
Yes 56
No 36
Don't know 8

.
"Whatever your own personal view of abortion, do you favor or oppose a woman in this country having the choice to have an abortion with the advice of her doctor?"
%
Favor 69
Oppose 24
Don't know 7

.
"Do you think abortions should be legal under any circumstances, legal under only certain circumstances, or illegal in all circumstances?"
%
Legal under any circumstances 23
Legal under only certain circumstances 58
Illegal in all circumstances 15
Don't know 4

.
"Do you think there should be a law making illegal 'partial birth' abortions, that is, one form of late-term abortion performed after the fetus is able to live outside the mother's womb, except when necessary to save the life of the mother?"
%
Yes, illegal 55
No 36
Don't know 9

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iVillage Member
Registered: 04-10-2003
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 5:59pm

<>>

Quit with the personal attacks and condescension. Would you care to tell us how old YOU are?

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iVillage Member
Registered: 04-10-2003
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 6:03pm

<<15,000 21 or more weeks
600 after 26 weeks*

*(after the unborn child is 6 months old)>>

Wrong. Care to reference those stats? Mine say different:

"and only about 100 are performed in the third trimester (more than 24 weeks' gestation), approximately .01 percent of all abortions performed. "http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,880,00.html

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iVillage Member
Registered: 03-23-2009
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 6:04pm

One of the most powerful pieces of anti-abortion propaganda ever produced was a 1984 film called The Silent Scream , which purported to show the ultrasound image of a foetus being aborted - it's mouth apparently wide open in agony.


In the mid-Nineties, partly in response to growing public concern about such issues, the RCOG put together a panel of experts who came to the reassuring conclusion that the foetus couldn't feel pain until 26 weeks gestation - safely beyond the abortion time limit.


They said the part of the brain that responds to pain simply isn't developed at 26 weeks. In other words, any physical movements the foetus displays before then are purely reflex actions - the foetus is not aware and can't feel anything.


But we found disturbing research in America that directly contradicts this established view. It came from Dr Sunny Anand, who has a distinguished record in helping to prove that very young babies can feel pain. When he was based at Oxford University in the 1980s his work helped to ensure that newborn babies were routinely given pain relief for surgical procedures.


His latest research is extremely technical and covers two areas. First, he's been comparing how newborn babies and unborn foetuses react to any kind of stress, including pain.


He's found similar changes in their hormones and their blood flow, suggesting that foetuses can indeed respond to pain.


Secondly, he's been researching - using rats - exactly which parts of the developing brain are used to detect pain.


He says that while the adult uses the very top section of the brain, the foetus has the first flickerings of sensation in the area below that. Crucially, this part of the brain develops before 26 weeks.


His conclusions could have enormous consequences for the abortion debate. He told Dispatches: "I believe that foetuses can feel pain very likely by 20 weeks of gestation and possibly even earlier."



Rosary Films made a high resolution version of The Silent Scream available via YouTube two months ago. It has been called "the most important video on abortion ever made." The baby filmed while being aborted was only 12 weeks old. His or her heartrate went from a norm of 140 to 200 while being drawn and quartered, indicating the probability babies feel pain much earlier than 20 weeks.

iVillage Member
Registered: 04-10-2003
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 6:05pm

<>

Abortion terminates a pregnancy, pure and simple.

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iVillage Member
Registered: 04-10-2003
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 6:09pm

Nope- I think I'll go with the scientific analysis that actually has some footnotes and references, as opposed to hyperbole.

http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/medicalinfo/abortion/fact-abortion-silent-scream.xml

The Facts Speak Louder Than "The Silent Scream"

Table Of Contents:
Introduction
Medical Inaccuracies in The Silent Scream
Misleading Statements, Exaggerations and Innuendoes in The Silent Scream
Questions and Other Problems

In the mid-1980s, leaders of the anti-abortion movement produced a video called The Silent Scream.

The video, epitomizing the anti-abortion agenda and strategy, tried to shift the focus of the abortion debate away from compassion for the health and needs of the woman to an exaggerated concern for the fetus.

Although riddled with scientific, medical, and legal inaccuracies as well as misleading statements and exaggerations, The Silent Scream is still wildly popular with anti-abortion zealots. And it continues to be a key tool in their propaganda efforts.

Originally designed to frighten American women away from choosing abortion, the video is now shown worldwide to troubled women who turn to so-called "crisis pregnancy centers" for assistance with their problem pregnancies. Clips from the film even run continuously on the World Wide Web.

As soon as it was released, Planned Parenthood recognized that The Silent Scream would be used to propagate harmful myths that could endanger women's health and the constitutional right to choose abortion and jeopardize the lives and careers of abortion providers. To expose these distortions and deceits, Planned Parenthood convened a panel of medical experts to review and critique the video. Panel members were:

Sally Faith Dorfman, MD
Assistant Professor, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Assistant Clinical Professor, Mount Sinai Hart Peterson, MD
Chief of Pediatric Neurology, New York Hospital, Clinical Professor of Neurology in Pediatrics, Cornell University Medical Center
William Rashbaum, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Seymour L. Romney, MD
Professor, Ob/Gyn, Director, Gynecological Cancer Research, and former Chairman, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Allan Rosenfield, MD
Professor, Ob/Gyn and Public Health, Acting Chairman, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Director, Center for Population and Family Health, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Herbert G. Vaughan, Jr. MD
Professor of Neuroscience, Neurology and Pediatrics, Director, Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research in Mental Retardation and Human Development, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Ming-Neng Yeh, MD
Associate Clinical Professor, Dept. of Ob/Gyn Ultrasound Laboratory, Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center.

Here is their critique, The Facts Speak Louder, as it was first published in 1985:

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The Facts Speak Louder

The Planned Parenthood Critique of The Silent Scream

Introduction

Those who seek to restrict or eliminate access to safe, legal abortion in this country have launched another attack in their desperate attempt to win the hearts and minds of the American public. This approach consists of a "documentary" film titled The Silent Scream, which allegedly portrays the performance of an abortion done under ultrasonography.

The film represents an attempt to shift the focus in the abortion debate to the fetus and away from any concern or compassion for women in need of abortion services. It is an attempt to deny the desperation that once forced American women into the life-threatening, humiliating experiences of the unsafe and often lethal abortions.

The Silent Scream, which was hailed by President Reagan, sent to every member of Congress, shown in part or in toto on television news and other programs across the country, and whose text was read into the Congressional Record, has been treated as factual, when the opposite is true.

From its title, to the description of a fetus as a "person," through the descriptive narration provided by Dr. Bernard Nathanson, the documentary aspects of this film are flawed and biased. The film is riddled with scientific, medical, and legal inaccuracies, misleading statements, and exaggerations. And through innuendo, the film attempts to denigrate the efforts of Planned Parenthood and other reproductive health and rights organizations to provide safe, legal, inexpensive reproductive health care services, including abortion, for women who want and need these services.

Planned Parenthood Federation of America, in an effort to increase public awareness about the film's flaws and biases, convened a panel of internationally known and respected physicians who are expert in various disciplines to review and critique The Silent Scream. The panel's finding are incorporated in this booklet.

Planned Parenthood Federation of America is committed to assuring that all individuals have the freedom to make their own decisions about whether or when to have a child. To help individuals make and implement those decisions, Planned Parenthood is committed to expanding access to all of the information and services needed to prevent unintended pregnancies.

Likewise, for all women who are faced with unwanted pregnancies, Planned Parenthood is committed to preserving the constitutionally protected right to obtain medically safe, legal abortions.

Medical Inaccuracies in The Silent Scream

Claim:
The 12-week fetus experiences pain.

Facts:
At this stage of the pregnancy, the brain and nervous system are still in a very early stage of development. The beginnings of the brain stem, which includes a rudimentary thalamus and spinal cord, is being formed. Most brain cells are not developed. Without a cerebral cortex (gray matter covering the brain), pain impulses cannot be received or perceived. Additionally, experts find that newborns at 26-27 weeks' gestation (24-25 weeks' fetal age) who survive have significantly less response to pain than do full term newborns.

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The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

Statement on Pain of the Fetus
We know of no legitimate scientific information that supports the statement that a fetus experiences pain early in pregnancy.

We do know that the cerebellum attains its final configuration in the seventh month and that mylenization (or covering) of the spinal cord and the brain begins between the 20th and 40th weeks of pregnancy. These, as well as other neurological developments, would have to be in place for the fetus to receive pain.

To feel pain, a fetus needs neurotransmitted hormones. In animals, these complex chemicals develop in the last third of gestation. We know of no evidence that humans are different.

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Claim:
The 12-week fetus makes purposeful movements (e.g., agitated movement in an attempt to avoid suction cannula).

Facts:
At this stage of pregnancy, all fetal movement is reflexive in nature rather than purposeful, since the latter requires cognition, which is the ability to perceive and know. For cognition to occur, the cortex (gray matter covering the brain) must be present, as well as myelinization (covering sheath) of the spinal cord and attached nerves, which is not the case.

An example of the reflex withdrawal without pain occurs in an anencephalic (absent brain) newborn. Another known example of the reflex movement at this stage of human pregnancy is thumb sucking in utero.

What is termed "frantic activity" by the fetus is a reflex response of the fetus resulting from movement of the uterus and its contents induced by operator manipulation of the suction curette or the ultrasound transducer on the abdomen. This same type of response would likely occur with any external stimulus. A one-cell organism such as an amoeba will reflexively move or display a withdrawal reaction when touched.

In addition, experts in ultrasonography and film technology have concluded that the videotape of the abortion was deliberately slowed down and subsequently speeded up to create an impression of hyperactivity.

Claim:
Ultrasonogram depicts the open mouth of the fetus.

Facts:
The mouth of the fetus cannot be identified in the ultrasound image with certainty. The statement that the screen identifies the open mouth of the fetus is a subjective and misleading interpretation by Dr. Nathanson. His conclusion is not supportable.

Claim:
The fetus emits "The Silent Scream."

Facts:
A scream cannot occur without air in the lungs. Although primitive respiratory movements do occur in the later stages of gestation, crying or screaming cannot occur even then. In fact, a child born prematurely at 26-27 weeks' gestation (24-25 weeks' fetal age) cannot scream but occasionally emits weak cries.

Claim:
A fetus is indistinguishable from any of the rest of us.

Facts:
A fetus of 12 weeks cannot in any way be compared to a fully formed functioning person. At this stage only rudiments of the organ systems are present. The fetus is unable to sustain life outside the woman's womb, it is incapable of conscious thought; it is incapable of essential breathing. It is instead an in utero fetus with the potential of becoming a child.

Claim:
Fetal head at 12 weeks requires the use of "crushing instruments" for extraction.

Facts:
At 12 weeks' gestation (10 weeks' fetal age) and even 1-2 weeks beyond, instrumentation other than a suction cannula is not required when abortion is properly performed. Cannulas for aspiration abortion come in varying sizes, and the larger sizes are adequate for withdrawing the contents of the uterus.

Misleading Statements, Exaggerations and Innuendoes in The Silent Scream

Claim:
"Brain waves have existed for six weeks" in the fetus displayed on the screen.

Expert Opinion:
Although some electrical impulses have been recorded as early as 10 weeks' gestation, these cannot be interpreted as or compared with brain waves. Genuine brain waves do not occur until the third trimester.

Claim:
Fetal heart rate rose from 140 to 200, which is abnormally high and reflective of fetal response to "imminent mortal danger."

Expert Opinion:
The heart rate of the fetus portrayed in the film does not change significantly at any time. Nevertheless, a fetal heart rate of 200 is within the normal range (normal 180-200 beats per minute) for this stage of pregnancy. It is also unlikely that the fetus had a heart rate of 140 that rose to 200. A rate of 140 is generally noted in the latter half of pregnancy.

Claim:
The large, well-developed fetal model intermittently picked up and displayed during the narrative of the abortion procedure is representative of a 12-week fetus.

Expert Opinion:
The fetal model displayed during the abortion procedure is much larger than a fetus of a 12 weeks' gestation model visualized by ultrasonography. The model compared in size to a fetus of 18 weeks' gestation (about 14cm or 5½" in crown-rump length ) as opposed to a fetus of 12 weeks gestation (about 6cm or 2½" in CRL). Such an inaccurate comparison is invalid.

Claim:
Many women who have an abortion suffer severe and lasting psychological damage.

Expert Opinion:
Serious emotional problems following abortion are uncommon. Most women report a sense of relief, although some may experience temporary depression. Serious psychological disturbances after abortion occur less frequently than after childbirth.

Claim:
There were 100,000 illegal abortions annually in the US in 1963.

Expert Opinion:
100,000 illegal abortions is considered by experts to be an underestimation. Although there are no accurate data on the number of illegal abortions prior to its legal performance, Dr. Christopher Tietze, a demographer who was known worldwide for the scientific quality of his work, estimated that in 1963, the numbers ranged between 200,000 and 1,200,000. It is generally believed that the figure was closer to the higher level, and has risen little since abortion was legalized (currently about 1,500,000). In 1963, only those botched abortions having serious complications requiring hospitalization could be counted. Without a legal requirement for reporting, there are no accurate estimations as to what percentage of the degrading, dangerous, illegal abortions was successful without such complications.

Claim:
The crime syndicate is heavily involved in the abortion industry today.

Expert Opinion:
There is nothing to prove or even suggest that the crime syndicate is currently involved in the provision of abortion services. However, it is a well-known fact that organized crime was heavily involved with illegal abortion. The high cost of illegal abortion made it lucrative for underworld elements. In the 1960s, illegal abortions cost from $750 to several thousand dollars. Considering inflation rates over the past 20 years, the cost of illegal abortions now would be more than triple that of the 1960s. Today the average cost for a first-trimester abortion is $200.

Claim:
Quoting from Williams' Obstetrics, the fetus is amenable to intrauterine therapy and is to be considered as a second patient.

Expert Opinion:
The statement in Williams Obstetrics text is true and intended to stimulate further interest and research in fetal and maternal relationships so as to improve the health of the mother and the autonomous newborn. However, in the film presentation, Dr. Nathanson focuses only on the fetus, totally ignoring the pregnant woman, who is the first patient and the thrust of the text. He misconstrues Williams' statement and implies that Williams considers the fetus the primary patient—an unacceptable premise under any circumstances.

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Questions and Other Problems

Question:
Does a first-trimester abortion take so long to perform? It seemed to go on for a very extended period of time.

Answer:
No, an uncomplicated first-trimester abortion usually takes less than ten minutes to perform.

Question:
Is it appropriate to refer to a fetus as unborn child, with the same right as other human beings?

Answer:
No. Constitutionally, a fetus has no rights of personhood. Most legal precedent in English law attributes personhood to the live born.

Question:
The film generates sympathy for the fetus. What about the woman who needs an abortion? She is conspicuously absent from the film.

Answer:
The film ignores the plight of the woman seeking abortion and instead tries to shift the focus to the fetus. It is essential that this defect of the film be placed in correct perspective by reminding people of the horrors to which women were subjected when abortion was illegal, the fact that current contraceptive methods fail, as well as the critical situations that can occur in a women's life which lead her to seek and obtain an abortion.

It must be remembered that the US Supreme Court did not invent abortion when it legalized the procedure with its 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Illegal, unsafe abortion existed for hundreds and probably thousands of years, and it still exists in some societies. Legislation to prohibit abortion will not work. Even if illegal, as in the pre-1973 era, women of means would continue to have access to abortion, whereas those who could not pay the price of safe abortion would be forced into the degrading, back-alley tragedies of the past.

Question:
If Dr. Nathanson is so anti-abortion, how could he participate in the filming of an actual abortion procedure?

Answer:
By involving himself in the performance of an abortion, which he states in the film is, in his opinion, the murder of an unborn person, and by misrepresenting the medical facts that are widely known, Nathanson fits the category of a zealot. Zealots will stop at nothing in their attempts to win their cause. Such zeal encourages the kind of fanaticism that exists among those who

Question:
What about the dead fetuses in disposal containers that are flashed on the screen? Are they all products of late abortion?

Answer:
Most of these fetuses are so large and in such a state of deterioration that they are actually stillborns (fetuses spontaneously born dead) rather than aborted fetuses. It is possible that some of the smaller fetuses resulted from late saline abortion. Late abortions (after 22 weeks' gestation) constitute less than one percent of all abortions. Many late abortions are performed as a result of fetal abnormalities that can only be diagnosed later in pregnancy or other extreme hardship cases.

Question:
What is our response to Dr. Nathanson's statement that Planned Parenthood does not obtain informed consent for abortion, and should show the film to all women requesting termination of pregnancy?

Answer:
Planned Parenthood takes great care to advise and counsel women and their partners of the various options for managing an unwanted pregnancy. These include continuing the pregnancy with the options of keeping the child or giving it up for adoption, or having an abortion. Those who elect abortion are advised, as with other surgical procedures, of the risks and benefits that may be associated with the procedure. They are given a written fact sheet detailing the potential complications that can occur with abortion. As part of an individual counseling session, all questions are answered and an informed request form for the procedure is signed. For those who wish further information about the fetus and its developmental stages, this information is provided. To require that women receive such information or view the film when they do not wish it is punitive. The Supreme Court has declared that such requirements go beyond the bounds of information required for informed consent and have struck down restrictive ordinances that would impose such requirements.

http://www.violence.de/prescott/humanist/abortion.html
The Abortion of The Silent Scream
James W. Prescott
Appendix C in Doerr, Edd and Prescott, James W. (Eds.): Abortion Rights and Fetal 'Personhood', 2nd Ed. Long Beach (1990); originally published in The Humanist, September/October l986.

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The anti-abortion movement's members would have us believe that their concern for fetal life is derived from a broad base of respect for human life and a concern for human pain, suffering, and violence. The production of the film The Silent Scream is an attempt to dramatize those concerns by illustrating alleged fetal pain and suffering during an abortion procedure.

The perception of pain is a complex biological and psychological phenomenon that involves states of "consciousness" which can probably never be fully understood or known for certain stages of fetal development. Relevant to this inquiry are certain neurobiological and biobehavioral facts concerning states of "consciousness" and "pain" perception during fetal development that should be known by all concerned citizens.

Patricia A. Jaworski has produced an audio tape, "Thinking About the Silent Scream," in which she interviews several internationally renowned neuroscientists on fetal brain development, the alleged fetal perception of "pain," and alleged fetal "personhood." Some of the highlights of those interviews are summarized in the following paragraphs.

Dr. Michael Bennett, chairman of the neuroscience department of Albert Einstein Medical School, when asked whether a brain exists at conception and whether there can be a person without a brain, answered with an unequivocal "no!" to both questions. It was pointed out that the human brain has approximately 100 billion brain cells and that there are an estimated 100 trillion connections between neurons in the brain. This extraordinary neuronal "interconnectivity" provides the neurostructural foundation for complex perceptions and "personhood" and takes many months and often years to fully develop and function.

Dr. Patricia Goldman-Rakic, professor of neuroscience at Yale University Medical School, emphasizes that brain neurons do not exist prior to four weeks in utero, that the peak period for brain neuron development is from two to five months in utero, and that the existence of neurons, per se, does not indicate the existence of a developed, functioning brain. Once the brain cell is born, there is a long process of migration of brain cells that occurs mainly from two to six months in utero during which the brain cells move (migrate) to their final destination in the brain. An even longer process of development makes possible the "interconnectivity" of brain cells which is absolutely essential for sensation, perception, conscious experience, thought, and behavior. The formation of brain synapses that make possible brain cell communication does not begin until about the third month in utero, and most are formed after birth.

Dr. Clifford Grobstein, former chairman of the Department of Biology at Stanford University and now at the University of California at San Diego, highlights the complexity of brain development by noting that the brain docs not develop uniformly. For example, certain parts of the brain develop earlier and some later. The cerebral neocortex that is responsible for complex perceptions is one of the last to develop.

Dr. Dominick Purpura, dean of Albert Einstein Medical School, has been studying human brain development since 1974 with his research on mental retardation. Dr. Purpura emphasizes that there are a minimum number of neurons and synaptic connections that are necessary before the qualities of "humanness" and "personhood" can be developed and that this capacity begins to occur in the middle of the last trimester. Thus, about twenty-eight to thirty weeks in utero is the minimal time for the beginning of this capacity—"It can't begin earlier," according to Dr. Purpura.

Dr. Purpura also emphasizes that critical changes are seen in the fetal brain wave pattern at thirty-one weeks when the brain waves become more organized and, thus, meuninglul; the first signs of sleep and wakefulness are not observed until a few weeks later. It is emphasized that all cells have electrical potentials and that the mere presence of such signals, per se, does not mean that the capacity for complex perceptions or "personhood" exists. How these neuronal signals become organized and reflect underlying neuronal and structural organization is fundamental to understanding the basic neurobiological pnnciple that structure precedes function.

Thus, it can be concluded that neither pain perception nor personhood exists at conception and that the beginning capacity for personhood may only begin at twenty-eight to thirty weeks in utero. Why, then, the film The Silent Scream, with all its deliberate distortions and errors of fact? It is the intent of this socio-psychological study to address the producers and supporters of The Silent Scream—a film which has been offered as a manifestation of their compassion for human pain, suffering, and violence—to illustrate through a review of both previous and new data that their motivation for The Silent Scream was not fetal well-being. This study will show that the anti-abortion motivation behind the producers and supporters of The Silent Scream resides in an authoritarian control and denial of the fundamental human right of self-determination and the sexual expression of affection and love as a basic right of all persons.

In the production of The Silent Scream questions must be raised as to the elements of compassion and malevolence that made that film possible. Presumably, those who abhor abortion under any circumstances would not support any abortion, including participation in filming an abortion they consider to be a murder! Why did the anti-abortionists not stop the filming of the abortion and the abortion itself which made the film possible? Or is the fetus simply an object to be exploited for ulterior motives—like the children of the anti-abortion cultures?

Is it appropriate to compare from a moral perspective the production of The Silent Scream and the production of "snuff" films in which women are enticed into a sexual encounter and, unknown to them, are scheduled for sexual torture, mutilation, and murder? Assuming that abortion is murder and "snuff" is murder, do the producers and supporters of these two kinds of films share a certain common morality? If so, what would be the nature of that common morality?

When the Reverent R.L. Hymers, Jr., pastor of the Fundamentalist Baptist Tabernacle in Los Angeles, called Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr., a "baby killer" and led his four-hundred member congregation in prayer to ask God to kill Brennan so that President Reagan could replace him with a judge who opposes abortion, does this not reinforce a common morality of violence in the anti-abortionist mentality as it is reflected in The Silent Scream and the fire-bombings of abortion clinics and personnel? (See, The Washington Post, June 2, 1986.)

Since the morality of pain and pleasure reside at the core of abortion controversy, it may be helpful to reflect upon the following data as these moral questions are addressed.

In an attempt to clarify the ideological and motivational structure of the anti-abortion personality and "sub-culture;" this writer published a series of research articles that addressed these issues (Prescott, 1975; 1978; Prescott and Wallace, 1978). A summary of these findings would appear helpful as a background to the new studies reported herein which will shed further light on the lack of compassion for human pain, suffering, and violence that is a salient characteristic of the militant anti-abortion movement.

The question of whether abortion represents a "murderous" act or a "benevolent" act is addressed in the 1975 article in The Humanist by examining the social behavioral characteristics of primitive cultures that permitted or punished abortion and by examining the relationship between voting patterns in the Canadian Federal Parliament on abortion and capital punishment legislation.

It was hypothesized that, if abortion reflected a "murderous" violent act, then the cultures which permitted abortion should be similarly characterized; conversely, if abortion reflected a benevolent act, then the cultures which permitted abortion should also be characterized as benevolent and peaceful. Similarly hypothesized was whether votes on abortion rights correlated positively or negatively with votes on capital punishment.

In brief, the following relationships were obtained from twenty-one primitive cultures where coded anthropological information was available on abortion and other behaviors:

55% of cultures that punish abortion practice slavery while 92% of cultures that permit abortion prohibit slavery.
73% of cultures that punish abortion also torture, mutilate, and kill enemy captured in warfare while 80% of cultures that permit abortion do not torture, mutilate, and kill enemy captured in warfare.
78% of cultures that punish abortion punish premarital coitus while 67% of cultures that permit abortion permit premarital coitus.
88% of cultures that punish abortion punish extramarital coitus while 67% of cultures that permit abortion permit extramarital coitus.
70% of cultures that punish abortion exploit children while 78% of cultures that permit abortion do not exploit children.
With respect to the voting patterns in the Canadian Parliament on abortion and capital punishment, the following relationships were established:

1. 59% voted for abortion rights and against capital punishment. 2. 21% voted against abortion rights and for capital punishment. 3. 80% supported a statistically valid relationship between anti-choice and anti-life voting patterns, and vice versa.

These voting patterns in the Canadian Parliament were consistent with the data obtained from primitive cultures that established a strong relationship between anti-choice and anti-life sentiments. It was concluded that the above data did not support the anti-abortion movement's claim to be a "Right to Life" movement and, in fact, supported the opposite.

In a further effort to validate the above relationships, this writer examined the voting patterns in the United States Senate on bills involving abortion, capital punishment, support of the Vietnam War, support of the "no-knock" law (police did not need a court order to break into a private home), and opposition to gun control legislation (Prescott, 1978).

In summary, the following statistically significant relationships were obtained between abortion and bills on human violence:

1. 71% valid relationship between anti-choice beliefs and support of capital punishment and its converse relationship. 2. 72% valid relationship between anti-choice beliefs and support of the Vietnam War and its converse relationship. 3. 65% valid relationship between anti-choice beliefs and support of the "no-knock" law and its converse relationship. 4. 71% valid relationship between anti-choice beliefs and and opposition to handgun control and the converse relationship.

The preceding data are fully consistent with and cross-validate the findings obtained from primitive cultures and from and Canadian Parliament that established a strong relationship between anti-abortion beliefs and suppott of human oppression and violence, and the converse relationship.

In a further examination of these relationships, this writer utilized the National Farmers Union ratings of U.S. senators on a scale from zero to one hundred to study the senators' support of legislation that helped families and their children—such as support of school lunch and milk programs. This rating was based upon the senators' voting records on fifteen different bills and was interpreted by this writer as a valid and reliable measure of family nurturance. It was found that the average Family Nurturance Score of senators who supported abortion rights of women and opposed capital punishment was ninety-six out of one hundred. The average family nurturance score of the senators who opposed abortion rights of women and supported capital punishment was forty-four out of one hundred—less than half of the family nurturance score of the pro-choice senators.

It was concluded from the above data that the anti-abortion ideology did not reflect compassion and respect for human life but, rather, an ideology of authoritarian control over the personal lives of individuals that included violent means of human oppression.

In the final article on the abortion issue, which was coauthored by my associate, Dr. Douglas Wallace, the major motivating force underlying the anti-abortion ideology that was suggested from the primitive culture data was examined—namely, anti-sexual pleasure (Prescott and Wallace, 1978).

An analysis of the voting patterns of the Pennsylvania House on abortion and on a bill that made fornication and adultery a felony yielded the following results: 85% who supported abortion rights supported rights of self-determination of sexual expression; and 86% who opposed abortion rights opposed rights of self-determination of sexual expression.

Similarly, the voting patterns in the Pennsylvania Senate with respect to abortion and a bill that would prevent homosexuals from being hired by the state government were examined. These evaluations yielded the following results: 73% who supported abortion rights supported homosexual rights of employment; and 89% who opposed abortion opposed homosexual rights of employment.

In addition to the above findings, extensive questionnaire data were reported from 688 males and 1,178 females from various walks of life on abortion ideology and other life values. Based upon the fifty-six-item questionnaire, the following items were the most highly and statistically linked to the statement, "Abortion should be punished by society" (Prescott and Wallace, 1978):

1. Prostitution should be punished by society. 2. Unmarried persons having sex with their lovers is wrong. 3. Sexual pleasures help build a weak moral character. 4. Physical punishment and pain help build a strong moral character. 5. Society should interfere with private sexual behavior between adults. 6. Nudity within the family has a harmful influence upon children.

The above findings taken collectively from primitive cultures, modern cultures, and legislative bodies strongly support an "anti-sexual pleasure" ethic as a major driving force underlying the anti-abortion ideology.

Although the above data have been available over the past eight to eleven years, they have not been utilized in confronting the increasing virulence and violence of the anti-abortion movement—that is, the numerous fire bombings and violent attacks against medical clinics and personnel providing abortion services to women and the increasing legislative attacks on the fundamental right of women to be mothers by choice.

The production of The Silent Scream by the anti-abortion movement is another attempt to mislead the public and legislators into believing that the anti-abortion movement has a fundamental concern and compassion about human pain, suffering, and violence. Since the publication of the above studies, additional statistics on voting on bills before the U.S. Congress have become available, making possible the direct examination of the anti-abortion movement's claims of compassion for human pain, suffering, and violence, as purportedly reflected in The Silent Scream, and for the cross-validation in the U.S. House of Representatives of certain relationships that had been previously established in the U.S. Senate.

The following analyses of voting patterns evaluate the one hundred pro-choice congressmen and one hundred anti-choice congressmen identified by Catholics for a Free Choice as totally supporting or totally opposing abortion rights of women (Catholics for a Free Choice, 1985). I have characterized the three legislative bills evaluated for this study as: (1) Human Pain and Suffering Bill (H.R. 5290); (2) Jeopardizing Human Lives Bill (H.R. 4332); and 3) Promoting Human Violence Bill (H.J. Res. 540).

The Human Pain and Suffering Bill was the bill to permit the use of parenteral diacetylmorphine (heroin) for the relief of intractable pain due to terminal cancer (H R. 5290: Compassionate Pain Relief Act). The vote analyzed was on the Hughes Amendment and other amendments to H.R. 5290 which specified circumstances when pain "may not be effectively treated with currently available analgesic medications." The Hughes Amendment was defeated 231 to 178, with 22 not voting on September 19, 1984. (See, Congressional Record, U.S. House of Representatives, Roll No. 400 Hughes Amendment to H.R. 5290: Compassionate Pain Relief Act; September 19, 1984; H9790-9791.)

The Jeopardizing Human Lives Bill was on gun control legislation, specifically the Federal Firearms Law Reform Act of 1986 (H.R. 4322). The vote analyzed was on the Hughes Amendment, which limited the serious weakening of the 1968 Gun Control Act under H.R. 4332. If H.R. 4332 was passed without the Hughes Amendment, it would have significantly increased the danger to lives of the public and law enforcement of officers. (Police organizations supported the Hughes Amendment.) The vote was taken on April 9, 1986, and the Hughes Amendment was defeated 242 to 177, with 15 not voting. (See, Congressional Record, U.S. House of Representatives, Roll. NO. 71 Hughes Amendment to H.R. 4332; Federal Firearms Law Reform Act of 1986; April 9, 1986; H1704.)

The promoting Human Violence Bill was the vote on "Contra Aid" (H.J. Res. 540) which "approves the additional authorities and assistance for the Nicaraguan democratic resistance that the President requested pursuant to the International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985, not withstanding section 10 of Public law 91-672." The vote was taken on March 20, 1986, Roll No. 64, and was defeated 222 to 210, with 3 not voting. (See, Congressional Record, U.S. House of Representatives, Roll No. 64, H.J. Res. 540: Contra Aid; March 20, 1986; H1493.)

TABLES 1 through 4 present the roll call votes on the above three bills for the one hundred pro-choice and one hundred anti-choice congressmen. The data have been organized into the following four basic groups:

TABLE l: Pro-choice and Anti-pain (supports H.R. 5290)
TABLE 2: Anti-choice and Pro-pain (opposes H.R. 5290)
TABLE 3: Pro-choice and Pro-pain (opposes H.R. 5290)
TABLE 4: Anti-choice and Anti-pain (supports H.R. 5290)
TABLE 1
U.S. House of Representatives Roll Call Vote of Pro-choice and Anti-pain Congressmen
(Average Pro-Child-Life Score equals 92)

Congressman District Pro-Child Score Gun Control Contra Aid Congressman District Pro-Child Score Gun Control Contra Aid

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Ackerman D-NY 100 Y N Leven D-MI 100 Y N
Barnes D-MD 100 Y N Levine D-CA 100 Y N
Bates D-CA 100 Y N Lundine D-NY 100 N N
Beilenson D-CA 100 Y N McKernan R-ME 83 N Y
Berman D-CA 100 Y N Mikulski D-MD 100 Y N
Bosco D-CA 83 N N Miller D-CA 100 Y N
Boxer D-CA 100 Y N Mineta D-CA 100 Y N
Britt D-NC 100 O O Moody D-WI 100 Y N
Burton D-CA 100 Y N Neal D-NC 100 N N
Carr D-MI 83 N N Obey D-WI 100 N N
Clay D-MO 100 Y N Ottinger D-NY 100 O O
Coelho D-CA 100 N N Pease D-OH 100 Y N
Coleman D-TX 100 N N Pickle D-TX 83 Y N
Dellums D-CA 100 Y N Pritchard R-WA 33 O O
Dicks D-WA 100 Y N Richardson D-NM 100 N N
Downey D-NY 100 Y N Roybal D-CA 100 Y N
Edgar D-PA 100 Y N Sabo D-MN 100 Y N
Edwards D-CA 100 Y N Savage D-CO 67 Y N
Evans D-OH 100 Y N Scheuer D-NY 100 Y N
Fazio D-CA 100 Y N Schroeder D-CO 83 Y N
Feighan D-OH 83 Y N Schumer D-NY 83 Y N
Foley D-WA 100 N N Seiberling D-OH 100 Y N
Ford D-TN 100 Y N Smith D-VA 100 O O
Frank D-MA 100 Y N Snowe R-ME 83 N N
Gejdenson D-CT 100 Y N Solarz D-NY 100 Y N
Gekas R-PA 33 N Y Stark D-CA 100 Y N
Green R-NY 67 Y N Stokes D-OH 67 A N
Hall D-IN 67 ? ? Waxman D-CA 100 Y N
Hoyer D-MD 100 A N Weiss D-NY 100 Y N
Johnson R-CT 83 Y Y Williams D-MT 100 N N
Kastenmeier D-WI 100 Y N Wirth D-CO 100 Y N
Kennelly D-CT 100 Y N Wise D-WV 100 N N
Lantos D-CA 67 Y N Wolpe D-MI 83 Y N
Leland D-TX 50 Y N Yates D-IL 100 Y N

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Y = Yes; N = No; A = Abstain; O = Not a member of the 99th Congress

In addition to the above information, a "Pro-Child-Life Score" is listed for each congressman and ranges from zero to one hundred. This score was developed by Catholics for a Free Choice on six legislative bills that affected the health and well-being of children (Catholics for a Free Choice, 1985). The six legislative bills used to derive the score dealt with budget increase, child nutrition, Medicaid and Aid for Families with Dependent Children, Head Start and child care, budget reduction for the Department of Health and Human Services, and the food stamp program. This score is analogous to the National Farmers Union Family Nurturance Score utilized in my previoua studies and is compared to it below.

The average Pro-Child-Life Score for the pro-choice and anti-pain congressmen is ninety-two; it is only forty-nine for the anti-choice and pro-pain congressmen. This finding is comparable to and cross-validates the NFU Family Nurturance Scores in the U.S. Senate study in which the pro-choice and anti-capital-punishment senators had an average score of ninety-six compared to forty-four for anti-choice and pro-capital-punishment senators.

TABLE 2
U.S. House of Representatives Roll Call Vote of Anti-choice and Pro-pain Congressmen
(Average Pro-Child-Life Score equals 49)

Congressman District Pro-Child Score Gun Control Contra Aid Congressman District Pro-Child Score Gun Control Contra Aid

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Bevil D-AL 100 N Y Lowery R-CA 17 N Y
Billrakis R-FL 33 N Y McCain R-AZ 33 N Y
Boggs D-LA 83 Y N McEwen R-OH 17 N Y
Borski D-PA 100 Y N Martin R-NY 50 A Y
Broomfield R-MI 50 Y Y Mavroules D-MA 100 Y N
Burton R-IN 17 N Y Mazzoli U-KY 100 Y N
Byron D-MD 50 N Y Michel R-IL 17 N Y
Clinger R-PA 67 N Y Miller R-OH 17 N Y
Coats R-IN 17 N Y Mollnari R-NY 33 Y Y
Conte R-MA 67 Y N Mollohan D-WV 100 N N
Crane R-IL 0 N Y Montgomery D-MA 50 N Y
Dannemeyer R-CA 0 N Y Murtha D-PA 100 N Y
Daub R-NE 17 N Y Myers D-KY 17 N Y
Duncan R-TN 33 N Y Natcher D-KY 83 N N
Durbin D-IL 100 N N Nelson D-FL 50 N Y
Emerson R-MO 33 N Y Nichols D-AL 67 A Y
Fields R-TX 33 N Y Nielson R-UT 17 N Y
Gaydos D-PA 67 N Y Oberstar D-MN 100 N N
Gerphardt D-MO 100 A N Packard R-CA 17 N Y
Gibbons D-FL 67 Y Y Petri R-WI 50 N Y
Gingrich R-GA 0 N Y Quillen R-TN 17 N Y
Goodling R-PA 33 Y Y Regula R-OH 33 N Y
Gradison R-OH 17 Y Y Rinaldo R-NH 67 Y Y
Gregg R-NH 17 N Y Ritter R-PA 17 N Y
Hall D-TX 50 ? ? Roe D-NJ 100 Y N
Hansen R-UT 17 N Y Rogers R-KY 33 N Y
Hertel D-MI 83 Y N Roth R-WI 33 N Y
Hiler R-IN 17 N Y Rudd R-AZ 17 N Y
Holt R-MD 33 N Y Russo D-IL 100 Y N
Hopkins R-KY 33 N N St. Germain D-RI 100 Y N
Hunter R-CA 0 N Y Schaefer R-CO 17 N Y
Hutto D-FL 67 Y Y Sensenbrenner R-WI 0 N Y
Hyde R-IL 50 N Y Shaw R-FL 17 N Y
Kemp R-NY 17 N Y Sikorski D-MN 100 N N
Kildee D-MI 100 Y N Skelton D-MO 83 N Y
Lagomarsino R-CA 17 N Y Smith R-NJ 50 Y Y
Latta R-OH 17 N Y Smith R-OR 17 N Y
Leath D-TX 33 N Y Smith R-NE 33 N Y
Lipinski D-IL 100 Y Y Whitten D-MA 83 N N
Livingston R-LA 33 N Y Wolf R-VA 33 Y Y
Lloyd D-TN 50 N N Yatron D-PA 100 N Y
Loeffler R-TX 33 N Y Young R-FL 31 Y Y
Long D-LA 100 N N Young R-AK 67 N Y
Lott R-MS 33 N Y Young D-MO 100 N Y

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Y = Yes, N = No, A = Abstain, O = Not a member of the 99th Congress

TABLE 3
U.S. House of Representatives Roll Call Vote of Pro-choice and Pro-pain Congressmen
(Average Pro-Child-Life Score equals 79)

Congressman District Pro-Child Score Gun Control Contra Aid Congressman District Pro-Child Score Gun Control Contra Aid

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Anderson D-CA 83 Y N MacKay D-FL 100 N N
AuCoin D-OR 67 N N Morrison D-WA 50 N Y
Boehlert R-NY 67 N N Panetta D-CA 100 Y N
Brooks D-TX 100 N N Pursell R-MI 50 Y Y
Chandler R-WA 67 Y Y Rangel D-NY 100 Y N
Collins D-IL 100 Y N Rose D-NC 100 Y N
Crockett D-MI 83 Y N Roukema R-NJ 33 Y Y
Fascell D-FL 100 Y Y Rowland D-GA 100 N N
Fiedler R-CA 33 N Y Schneider R-RI 83 Y N
Gonzalez D-TX 83 Y N Spratt D-SC 100 Y N
Gray D-PA 100 Y N Vandergriff D-TX 50 O O
Hatcher D-GA 100 Y Y Wyden D-OR 100 N N
Levitas D-GA 67 O O Zschau R-CA 33 Y Y

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Y = Yes, N = No, A = Abstain, O = Not a member of the 99th Congress

TABLE 4
U.S. House of Representatives Roll Call Vote of Anti-choice and Anti-pain Congressmen
(Average Pro-Child-Life Score equals 80)

Congressman District Pro-Child Score Gun Control Contra Aid

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DeWine R-OH 17 N Y
Donnelly D-MA 100 Y N
Hamilton D-IL 83 N N
Luken D-OH 100 N N
Perkins D-KY 100 N N

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Y = Yes; N = No; A=Abstain; O = Not a member of the 99th Congress

TABLE 5
U.S. House of Representatives Voting Relationships on Freedom of Choice and Freedom from Pain

Pro-choice Anti-choice SUM
Anti-pain 36%
N = 68 3%
N = 5 73
Pro-pain 14%
N = 26 47%
N = 88 114
SUM 94 93 187

83% Valid Relationship
Chi Square = 88.08 Z = 9.39
N = 187; p << 0.00001

72% (68 of 94) Pro-choice congressmen support human pain relief
95% (88 of 93) Anti-choice congressmen oppose human pain relief

TABLE 6
U.S. House of Representatives Voting Relationships on Freedom of Choice, freedom from Pain, and Gun Control

Pro-choice &
Anti-pain Anti-choice &
Pro-pain SUM
Pro-Gun
Control 32%
N = 47 10%
N = 14 61
Anti-Gun
Control 15%
N = 21 43%
N = 63 84
SUM 68 77 145

75% Valid Relationship
Chi Square = 38.44, Z = 6.20
N = 145, p << 0.00001

69% (47 of 68) Pro-choice and anti-pain congressmen support gun control
82% (63 of 77) Anti-choice and pro-pain congressmen oppose gun control

TABLE 7
U.S. House of Representatives Voting Relationships on Freedom of Choice, Freedom from Pain, and Contra Aid

Pro-choice &
Anti-pain Anti-choice &
Pro-pain SUM
Pro-Contra
Aid 2%
N = 3 45%
N = 67 70
Anti-Contra
Aid 40%
N = 60 13%
N = 20 80
SUM 63 87 150

85% Valid Relationship
Chi Square = 76.64, Z = 8.75
N = 150, p << 0.00001

95% (60 of 63) Pro-choice and anti-pain congressmen oppose Contra Aid
77% (67 of 87) Anti-choice and pro-pain congressmen support Contra Aid

TABLE 5 presents the basic analysis that compares the relationship between votes on abortion and human pain. In brief: 36% (68 of 187) of the total sample support pro-choice and human pain relief legislation; 47% (88 of 187) of the total sample oppose pro-choice and human pain relief legislation; 83% (156 of 187) of the total sample support the basic psychological relationship between abortion values and human pain which is statistically very significant.

More specifically: 72% (68 of 94) of pro-choice congressmen support human pain relief; 95% (88 of 93) of anti-choice congressmen oppose human pain relief in dying cancer patients!

Only three percent of the sample are anti-choice and anti-pain, which is interpreted as reflecting a "consistent life" position. The average Pro-Child-Life Score of this group is eighty, although the reliability of this score is limited given the small sample size and its variability.

The most psychologically and politically complex group of voters is the pro-choice and pro-pain group, and it demonstrates the greatest variability in Pro-Child-Life Scores. Time and space does not permit a further discussion of this group of voters.

In summary, these data contravene the claims of members of the anti-abortion movement that they have a basic compassion for human pain and suffering, which they attempt to portray in The Silent Scream.

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TABLE 6 presents the basic analysis that compares the pro-choice and anti-pain congressmen with the anti-choice and pro-pain congressmen on gun control. In brief: 32% (47 of 145) of the total sample who are pro-choice and anti-pain support gun control legislation; 43% (63 of 145) of the total sample who are anti-choice and pro-pain oppose gun control legislation; 75% (110 of 145) of the total sample support the basic psychological relationship between abortion values and human pain with gun control.

More specifically: 69% (47 of 68) of pro-choice and anti-pain congressmen support gun control legislation; 82% (63 of 77) of anti-choice and pro-pain congressmen oppose gun control legislation. The above data confirm in the U.S. House of Representatives the relationship between abortion and gun control legislation that was previously found in the U.S. Senate. Opposition to abortion is associated with support of legislation that increases the risk to human lives from the violent use of handguns. These data provide no support for and, in fact, contravene the claims of the anti-abortion movement that they have a basic compassion for the victims of violence which they attempt to portray in The Silent Scream.

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TABLE 7 presents the basic analysis that compares the pro-choice and anti-pain congressmen with the anti-choice and pro-pain congressmen on Contra Aid—this is, support for violent revolution. In brief: 40% (10 of 160) of the total sample who are pro-choice and anti-pain oppose Contra Aid—that is, oppose support for violent revolution; 45% (67 of 150) of the total sample who are anti-choice and pro-pain support Contra Aid—that is, support violent revolution; 85% (127 of 150) of the total sample support the basic psychological relationship between abortion values and pain with violent revolution.

More specifically: 95% (60 of 63) of pro-choice and anti-pain congressmen oppose Contra Aid—that is, oppose support of human violence; 77% (67 of 87) of anti-choice and pro-pain congressmen support Contra Aid—that is, provide support for human violence.

The above data contravene the claims of the anti-abortion movement that they have a basic compassion for the victims of violence, which they attempt to portray in The Silent Scream.

In summarizing previous and current data on the anti-abortion "personality" and "subculture," a profile emerges from these scientific studies with the following characteristics:

Authoritarian control over the personal lives of individuals, as it is reflected in the practice of slavery in primitive cultures, the legislative denial of freedom for women in modern cultures to be mothers by choice, and the imposition of arbitrary police arrests and seizures.
Support of human violence and its associated disregard for the dignity and integrity of the human body, as it is reflected in support of such physical assaults against the human body as: torture, mutilation, and killing of enemy captured in warfare; support of capital punishment; support of the war in Vietnam and violent revotulion (Contra Aid); opposition to gun control legislaton; violent attacks on medical clinics and personnel providing abortion services to women; and participation in the exploitation of a fetus in an abortion procedure to produce a false film "documentary" to serve authoritarian political and religious objectives.
Indifference to human pain and suffering, as it is reflected in the refusal to provide effective medicine to control excruciating pain in dying cancer patients.
Authoritarian control and denial of the fundamental right of self-determination in sexual expression, as it is reflected in the punishment of prostitution and premarital and extramarital sexuality, in mandatory fornication and adultery as felonious crimes, and in punishment of homosexuality.
Indifference to the quality of life of children, as it is reflected in the economic exploitation of children (primitive cultures) and failure to provide basic medical care, food, education, and clothing for poor children and their families (legislative actions).
A moral value system that equates human pain, suffering and violence with moral strength and, conversely, equates sexual pleasure and relief from pain and suffering with moral weakness.
It is emphasized that the foregoing does not apply to certain individuals who represent 3 to 13 percent of the populations studied. These individuals are characterized by opposition to abortion and physical violence; they respect rights to sexual privacy and choice and have high child and family nurturance scores.

Given the profound moral, psychological, and political dimensions of the abortion controversy, it is unlikely that "data alone" will resolve it. The solution is prevention, with which women have complete control over their reproductive state. The prevention of all unintended and unwanted pregnancies should be our common goal.

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References
Catholics for a Free Choice. 1985. Reproductive Choice: What It Means and Where Congress Stands. Washington, DC: Catholics for a Free Choice.

Jaworski, Patricia, 1986 audio tape. "Thinking about The Silent Scream." New York: Jaworski Productions.

Prescott, J.W. July/August 1978. "Abortion and the 'Right-to-Life': Facts, Fallacies, and Fraud. I. Cross-Cultural Studies." The Humanist, pp. 18-24.

——. March 1976. "Violence, Pleasure, and Religion." The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, p. 62.

——. April 1975. "Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence." The Futurist, pp. 64-74.

——. March/April 1975. "Abortion or the Unwanted Child: A Choice for a Humanistic Society." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.

——. November/December 1972. "Before Ethics and Morality." The Humanist; pp. 19-21.

Prescott, J.W., and Wallace, D. November/December 1978. "Abortion and the 'Right-to-Life': Facts, Fallacies, and Fraud. II. Psychometric Studies." The Humanist, pp. 36-42.

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Republished with the kind permission of James W. Prescott. OCR, proofreading, and HTML by Joel Schlosberg. Please inform us about any errors you find. If you want to write a translation, please contact Erik Möller..
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Edited 3/25/2009 6:10 pm ET by erosia_raunch
iVillage Member
Registered: 03-23-2009
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 6:19pm
Pregnancy (latin graviditas) is the carrying of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, inside the uterus of a female.
iVillage Member
Registered: 04-10-2003
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 6:58pm

Known as a fetus- or an embryo- if oine wants to be accurate, of course ;-)

"Offspring", technically and legally is a BAND of musicians.

Abortion terminates a pregnancy. The death of the z/e/f is secondary to the purpose.

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iVillage Member
Registered: 11-29-2005
Wed, 03-25-2009 - 7:49pm

Question ... did you actually write this long post about teen abortions decreasing and abortion to women in their 20's increasing, or did you cut and paste from somewhere else?

 


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